Overview > Archaeology Wing > Early Hebrew Writing
Egyptian Archaeology
Statuette of Imhotep depicted as a scribe
Egypt
Ptolemaic Period, 3rd–2nd century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Hebrew letter
Lachish
Iron Age II, 6th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
“(Belonging) to Eliyahu,” Hebrew inscription on a jug
Jerusalem
Iron Age II, late 8th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
A reaper's plea
Mezad Hashavyahu
Iron Age II, 7th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Burial inscription: “(Belonging) to Ophai son of Nathanyahu (is) this chamber”
Khirbet el-Qom
Iron Age II, 7th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Burial inscription
Khirbet el-Qom
Iron Age II, 7th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Aramaic administrative document
Arad
Persian period, 4th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Aramaic administrative document
Arad
Persian period, 4th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Aramaic administrative document
Tel Beersheva
Persian period, 4th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Aramaic administrative document
Arad
Persian period, 4th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Aramaic administrative document
Beersheba
Persian period, 4th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Seal: "(Belonging) to Eprah so[n of] Semakyahu"
Provenance unknown
Iron Age II, 7th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Seal: "(Belonging) to M(?) SH(?) L M"
Provenance unknown
Iron Age II, 7th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Seal: "(Belonging) to Yehoezer (son of) Yigdalyahu"
Provenance unknown
Iron Age II, 7th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Seal: "(Belonging) to Hilqiyahu son of Adayahu"
Provenance unknown
Iron Age II, 7th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Seal: "(Belonging to) Derashyahu son of AZ[ ]"
Arad
Iron Age II, 8th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Hebrew inscription on a jug: "ABGD"
Lachish
Iron Age II, early 6th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
“Oil,” inscription on a jar fragment
Ekron
Iron Age II, 7th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
“Dried figs,” inscription on a jar fragment
Ekron
Iron Age II, 7th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
“(Belonging) to Yoram,” inscription on a jug
Tel Sera
Iron Age II, late 7th – early 6th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
“(Belonging) to Neriyahu, (belonging) to Amariyahu” Hebrew inscription on a jug
Tel Beersheba
Iron Age II, 8th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
“Half (a measure – belonging) to the King,” Hebrew inscription on a jug
Tel Beersheba
Iron Age II, 8th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
“(Belonging) to Yehumal,” Hebrew inscription on a jug
Hebron area
Iron Age II, 8th–7th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
“Ben Matton. 25 royal (measures). [W]ine of Gath Carmel. (royal emblem),” Phoenician inscription on a jar
Shiqmona, Israel
Persian period, 4th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
“(From the) vineyard of Zebadiah h(alf) a d(emi-storage jar),” Aramaic inscription on a jar fragment
Ashdod
Persian period, 5th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
“Ben Matton. 25 royal (measures). Vintage wine of Gat Car[mel. (royal emblem)],” Phoenician inscription on a jar
Shiqmona, Israel
Persian period, 4th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Fragment of a Hebrew inscription apparently praising a king who accumulated a great amount of wealth
Jerusalem
Iron Age II, late 8th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
“ASR”, fragment of a monumental Hebrew inscription
Samaria
Iron Age II, 8th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Fragment of a Hebrew inscription apparently dealing with a water system
Jerusalem
Iron Age II, 7th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Seal impression (bulla) that sealed an Aramaic papyrus document
Wadi ed-Daliyeh
Persian period, 4th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Seal impression (bulla) that sealed an Aramaic papyrus document
Wadi ed-Daliyeh
Persian period, 4th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Seal impression (bulla) that sealed an Aramaic papyrus document
Wadi ed-Daliyeh
Persian period, 4th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Seal impression (bulla) that sealed an Aramaic papyrus document
Wadi ed-Daliyeh
Persian period, 4th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Seal impression (bulla) that sealed an Aramaic papyrus document
Wadi ed-Daliyeh
Persian period, 4th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Seal impression (bulla) that sealed an Aramaic papyrus document
Wadi ed-Daliyeh
Persian period, 4th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
“2 cups we offer to the marzeah of Shamash,” inscription on a drinking bowl
Phoenicia (?)
Persian period, 4th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
“(Belonging) to Baal and Padi,” inscription on a potsherd
Ekron
Iron Age II, 7th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
“God, creator of the earth,” fragment of a jar, inscribed in Hebrew, that may have contained offerings for the Temple
Jerusalem
Iron Age II, late 8th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
“Cup of Pesah ben Shema,” inscription on a drinking bowl (cup)
Kfar Vradim
Iron Age II, 9th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
“Mattan. An offering to my Lady Elat,” dedication to a goddess on a jug
Lachish
Late Canaanite period, 13th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Hebrew correspondence(?) in Proto-Canaanite script
Horvat Qeiyafa
Iron Age II, 10th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
“[ ]RN[ ],” inscription on a dagger
Lachish
Middle Canaanite period, 16th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
“Arrow of Abdlabit,” inscription on an arrowhead
El-Khadr
Iron Age I, 12th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
“… ZHTYKL …, ” abecedary on a potsherd
Shiqmona, Israel
Persian period, 5th–4th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
“KLB,” part of an inscription, perhaps from a cult vessel
Gezer
Middle Canaanite period, 17th Century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
“(Belonging) to [Si]lliba‘al, so[n o]f Pulsiba‘al,” inscription on a knife blade
Nahal Tabor
Late Canaanite period, 13th–12th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
“ALWT WLT” two non-Semitic personal names on a potsherd
Tel Zafit
Iron Age II, 10th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Seal of Amoz the scribe
Moab
Iron Age II, 8th–7th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Seal of Chemosham (son of) Chemoshel the scribe
Moab
Iron Age II, 8th–7th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Pen case for writing implements (reeds) bearing the name of Ramesses III
Megiddo
Iron Age I, 12th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Reusable writing tablet
Nessana
Byzantine period, 5th century CE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Inkwell
En Gedi
Late Byzantine period to Early Islamic period, 6th–8th century CE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Inkwell
Unprovenanced
Roman period, 1st–2nd century CE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Inkwell
Khirbet Qumran, Judean Desert
1st century BCE – 1st century CE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Inkwell
Khirbet Qumran, Judean Desert
Roman period, 1st century BCE – 1st century CE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Stylus for writing
Provenance unknown
Roman period
Israelite & Persian Periods
Stylus for writing
Provenance unknown
Roman period
Israelite & Persian Periods
Inscribed bone
Massada
1st century CE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Inscribed potsherd (ostracon)
Horvat Uza
Iron Age II, 7th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Inscribed potsherd (ostracon)
Horvat Uza
Iron Age II, 7th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
“(Belonging) to BLTH; (Belonging) to BLTH; LY; (Belonging) to YALY,” Hebrew inscription incised on a stone
Jerusalem
Iron Age II, late 7th – early 6th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
“(Belonging) to Shalmay,” Phoenician inscription on a jar
Azor
Iron Age II, 6th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
“(Belonging) to Zadoq,” Hebrew inscription on a jug
Arad
Iron Age II, 7th–6th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
“(Belonging) to MKBRM,” Hebrew inscription on a jar
Hazor
Iron Age II, 8th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Seal impression (bulla) that sealed an Aramaic papyrus document
Wadi ed-Daliyeh
Persian period, 4th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Hebrew alphabetic exercise
Izbet Sartah
Iron Age I, 12th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
Aramaic administrative document
Arad
Persian period, 4th century BCE
Israelite & Persian Periods
“(Belonging) to Baalpelet,” Phoenician inscription on a jar
Dan
Iron Age II, late 7th – early 6th century BCE