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At the center of the Latin Catholic Mass and the Greek Orthodox Eucharist ceremonies is the idea that Christ is incarnated in the holy bread and wine, which are offered again and again as a sacrifice on the church altar. This belief originates in Jesus' words to his disciples during the Last Supper: "This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me" (Luke 22:19).

The Mass and the Eucharist church services take place daily. The distribution of holy bread during these ceremonies is considered one of the seven Christian sacraments, for which the worshipers cleanse themselves. In the Greek Orthodox rite, the holy bread and wine are first prepared on a side altar, and then brought to the central altar in a solemn procession representing Jesus' Way of the Cross, his death, and his resurrection.

There, they are consecrated and miraculously transubstantiate into Jesus' flesh and blood. The two altars are separated from the public by a partition covered with icons (iconostasis). The priest breaks off the central part of the bread and crumbles it into the cup of wine. He partakes of the bread, and then distributes the consecrated bread-and-wine mixture to the public.
In the Catholic Mass, the consecration of the wafers and wine is performed on one altar, visible to the public. The priest blesses the bread and the wine and lifts up the bread. As the bread is raised, the transubstantiation takes place. The priest now breaks off a third of the main host, and, after consecrating and tasting it, distributes the host to the faithful, placing the wafer directly on their tongues or in their hands.

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