of the skeleton has provided a picture, not always all that appealing,
of the nobleman’s appearance.
The examination of the cranium that showed that the nobleman’s
nose turned sharply to the left, probably due to illness or a fracture
he received in his youth. Loss of his upper front teeth and the
supporting bone apparently resulted in sunken cheeks and pursed
lips, which would have made him look old for his age. The numerous
abscess cavities around the roots of his remaining teeth point to
severe periodontal disease, which undoubtedly made it painful to
In contrast to the aged appearance of his face, the nobleman’s
arm and leg bones were thick and sturdy, indicating that he was
physically active. The right arm bones were thicker than those of
the left arm, suggesting that in his youth, he used his right arm
in an exceptionally strenuous manner, perhaps for drawing a bow.
Toward the end of his life, the nobleman broke his left fibula
just above the ankle. The fracture, probably caused by a fall or
a blow from a blunt object, healed two to three months before he
died. Since there were no signs of infection or deformity, we may
assume that this was not the cause of death.