Languages

Accessibility

Interface

Adjust the interface to make it easier to use for different conditions.
Visitor Info

Accessibility

We strive to make the Museum as accessible as possible for disabled visitors
  • Marked handicapped parking is available near the main entrance to the Museum, and the Second Temple Model.
  • An audio system for the hearing-impaired is available at ticket counters.
  • Counters are wheelchair accessible.
  • Discounts on admission to holders of a disabled identification card.
  • Discounts on admission to wheelchair users (admission is free to an escort).
  • Free admission to blind and visually impaired visitors and their escort.
The Campus
  • Entrance to the Museum and interior passages are wheelchair accessible.
  • Wheelchairs and lockers are available in the entrance pavilion.
  • A cloakroom and folding chairs are available near the elevators.
  • A transit vehicle for four is available to those who have difficulty walking through the Route of Passage.
  • Elevators, stair lifts, and ramps are available in the various galleries (* there is no Shabbat elevator)
  • Museum’s restaurants and shops are wheelchair accessible.
  • Maps in various languages are available (details at the Information Desk).
  • Wheelchair accessible stalls are available in rest rooms.
Art Garden
* The Art Garden is inaccessible to wheelchair users (observation points overlook the garden).
Visitor Info

Events All of Today's Events

Guided Tours

Jewish Art and Life

Guided Tours

Ai Weiwei Maybe, Maybe Not

Guided Tours

Archaeology

Guided Tours

Jewish Art and Life

Guided Tours

Synagogue Route

Guided Tours

Modern Art

Guided Tours

Shrine of the Book and Model of Second Temple Jerusalem

Visitor Info

Opening Hours

Hanukkah
19.12 Tues, 10 am - 9 pm
13-19.12 Free entrance for children under 18 in memory  of Bessie rose Guberman, Canada

Free entrance for soldiers doing compulsory military service and for those doing National Service, courtesy of Israeli Friends of the Israel Museum

Free entrance for children under 18 (excluding groups and workshops) on Tues and Sat thoughout the year, courtesy of the Canadian Friends of the Israel Museum and David and Inez Myers, Cleveland, Ohio

Rockefeller Museum is closed on Tues, Fri, and Holiday Eves
Ticho House is closed on Saturdays

 

Visitor Info

Locations

Ticho House
Sun, Mon, Tues, Thurs 10 am – 5 pm
Wed 10 am – 9 pm
Fri and Holiday Eves 10 am – 2 pm
Sat closed.
10 HaRav Agan Street
Tel: 645 3746,
ticho@imj.org.il
Rockefeller Museum
Sun, Mon, Wed, Thurs 10 am – 3 pm
Sat 10 am – 2 pm
Closed Tues, Fri and Holiday Eves
27 Sultan Suleiman St.
Tel: 628 2251
fawziib@imj.org.il
Visitor Info

Campus Map

Museum Gallery Map
Visitor Info

Directions and Transportation

Find Us
The Israel Museum is located in Jerusalem on 11 Ruppin Boulevard, Hakyria, near the Knesset (Israeli Parliament).
The Israel Museum, Jerusalem
POB 71117
Jerusalem, 9171002
Israel
Tel: 972-2-670-8811
Fax: 972-2-677-1332
Transportation
By Bus
Bus lines: 7, 9, 14, 35, 66
Direct from Tel Aviv, line 100 from Shapirim Junction Parking
Information and schedules »
or dial Kol Kav *8787
By Car
Parking for cars and bicycles outside the Museum
GPS - Avraham Granot Street
WAZE - Israel Museum
Parking available for Museum visitors. Limited number of parking spaces.
Museum visitors are requested to retain entrance tickets, or receipts from Museum stores, or restaurants for presentation at the exit booth of the parking lot.
Ticho House
10 HaRav Agan Street, Jerusalem
Free entrance 
Tel: 02 645-3746 
email: ticho@imj.org.il
The Rockefeller Museum
POB 71117
91710 Jerusalem 
email: fawziib@imj.org.il
Tel: for groups: 02 670-8074
Fax: 02 670-8063
Visitor Info

Dining

Modern
Modern, the Museum's kosher meat restaurant, is designed in an early modernist style. It offers contemporary Jerusalem cuisine and a rich collection of quality wines. Adjoining a plaza and overlooking the Valley of the Cross, this restaurant specializes in hosting private and business events. 
Modern is kosher meat, under the supervision of the Chief Rabbinate of Jerusalem. Dining in the restaurant does not require purchase of an admissions ticket to the Museum. Museum members and Friends of the Israel Museum are entitled to a 10% discount. 
Parking is free and the restaurant is accessible to all. 
Open: Sun, Mon, Wed,Thurs from 11:30 am - 5 pm, Tues 11:30 am - 11 pm, Fri 10 am - 2 pm 
For inquiries: 02 648-0862.
To arrange events: 054-778-8558; 054-304-0279; events@modern.co.il 
See Modern's website »
 

Mansfeld
Mansfeld, the Museum's dairy cafés, are named after Al Mansfeld, the first architect of the Israel Museum and winner of the Israel Prize for Architecture for his design of the Museum. The café's rich menu includes home-baked goods, cakes, sandwiches, salads and hot dishes. The café is suitable for hosting private events.
Mansfeld is kosher dairy under the supervision of the Chief Rabbinate of Jerusalem. 
Dining in the café does not require purchase of an admissions ticket to the Museum. Museum members and Friends of the Israel Museum are entitled to a 10% discount. 
Parking is free and the restaurant is accessible to all. 
Open: Sun, Mon, Wed, Thurs 8 am - 5 pm | Tues 8 am - 9 pm | Fri 8 am - 2 pm. 
For inquiries: 02 563-6280; Fax: 02 561-8399; cafe@mansfeld.co.il
To arrange events: 054-884-7133 or 050-997-8800
See Mansfeld's website »
 


Chic Café
Chic Café is a dairy café located at the entrance to the Model of Jerusalem in the Second Temple Model. The menu includes fine coffee and cold drinks, sandwiches, salads (soups in the winter), cakes, ice cream and snacks. 
Dining in the café does not require purchase of an admissions ticket to the Museum. Museum members and Friends of the Israel Museum are entitled to a 10% discount. 
Parking is free and the restaurant is accessible to all. 
Open Sun Mon Wed Thurs 8 am - 5 pm; Tues 8 am - 6 pm; Fri 8 am - 2 pm, Sat 8 am - 5 pm 
Cafe Tel: 02 633-2555, yossi.stark@gmail.com
 

Anna Italian Café 

Ticho House
10 HaRav Agan Street
Sun – Thurs 1 pm – 11pm 
Fri 12 pm – 3pm 
Kosher dairy, Jerusalem Rabbinate 
Tel: 02 543-4144 
host@annarest.co.il

Visitor Info

Services

Museum Information
Please feel free to contact Museum Information with any questions.
Tel: 02 670-8811 info@imj.org.il
Cloakroom and folding chairs
A cloakroom and folding chairs are available at the end of the Route of Passage, next to the elevators. Please inquire at the Information Desk.
Wheelchairs and disabled access
Wheelchairs are available in the Entrance Pavilion. Please inquire at the Information Desk for details. Much of the Israel Museum is wheelchair-accessible, and an ongoing renovation program continues to improve access for the disabled. Wheelchair-accessible places include the entrance pavilion, the Shrine of the Book, and the Model of Jerusalem in the Second Temple Period. Download the PDF accessibility map of the campus. Accessibility in the Museum »
Parking
Parking available for Museum visitors. Limited number of parking spaces. Museum visitors are requested to retain entrance tickets, or receipts from Museum stores or restaurants for presentation at the exit booth of the parking lot. Bicycle parking Available in the entrance plaza of the Museum
Audio guides
Audio guides for some permanent exhibitions in selected languages are included in the Museum entrance fee and are available at the Entrance Pavilion. The exhibitions include: The Shrine of the Book, the Second Temple Model and the Art Garden. Audio guides are also appropriate for hearing impaired visitors.
Visitor Info

Museum Stores

Shop online

We are committed to bringing you the best that Israel has to offer. Whether you’re looking for exquisite jewelry made with materials unique to Israel, organic farm-fresh preserves, world-renowned Dead Sea skincare or home décor from internally acclaimed Israeli artists, we’ll send it to you straight from Israel.

Go Shopping »

Take the Museum experience home with you

Everyone buys gifts, but only at the Israel Museum shops do they come with a story. Each story reveals a new, and exciting world - all inspired by from the vast and unique collections of the Museum, from both the permanent exhibitions and special exhibitions. Discover the story behind specially-produced articles to make your your Museum experience linger on.

* Special benefits and discounts for Museum Members and an additional 10% discount on all products.

Be inspired
Discover items inspired by the Shrine of the Book, the Ahava (Love) sculpture from the Art Garden, a wide range of Judaica items; Hanukkah menorahs, wine cups, candlesticks, and more. Choose from the many children's products, as well as the exclusive and distinctive jewelry created by top Israeli and international designers.
Museum Stores
The three stores are located: at the entrance to the Second Temple Model, on the central cardo of the Museum opposite the Bella and Harry Wexner Gallery, and the main store in the entrance pavilion. No entrance fee required to the main store and parking is free!
Israel Museum Products, Ltd.
Israel Museum Products, Ltd. is an Israel Museum commercial corporation which operates three stores on the Museum campus. The company holds exclusive rights to create products for the Israel Museum inspired by the Museum's collection of unique items and temporary exhibitions. The company is committed to the inclusion of disadvantaged sectors, both in its stores and among workers involved in the product development and manufacture, in cooperation with various foundations and the Ministry of Economy and Industry. Special benefits and discounts for Museum Members and an additional 10% discount on all products.
Visitor Info

Members

Become a Member
For annual Membership fees »
Sign up online »
Benifits, discounts and special activities
Check the Member's Page for ongoing Membership benefits: exhibitions pre-openings just for members, special lectures, guided tours in the Museum and at other cultural institutions, discounts and more.
Give a Museum Membership to those you love - the gift that people love to get.
Purchase a membership for a friend and gain an additional month on your own membership for free. Please call for more details Tel: 02 670-8855
Visitor Info

Tickets

Buy Tickets

Purchase tickets online to the Museum and events Full-cost tickets may be purchased online or at the box office. Please note that discount tickets for children and youth, students, seniors, disabled visitors, IDF soldiers, National Service personnel, repeat visits within three months, and Jerusalem Resident cardholders are available only at the box office.
Free admission in August

Free admission for children until the age of 17 on Tuesdays and Saturdays (not for groups and does not include performances and workshops)

Tickets

NIS

Adults

 54

Students

 39

Children and teens (aged 5 to 17)  Free on Tues and Sat  (except groups and workshops)

 27

Senior Citizen (Upon presentation of official Israeli Ezrach Vatik or International ID)
(Cannot be purchased online)

 27

Disabled

 27

Soldier / National Service (Upon presentation of suitable ID)

Free

Repeat Visit (within 3 months) (No double discounts)

 27

Jerusalem Resident Cardholder

 46

Leumi 1+1 cardholders, Discount on tickets purchased in advance on the Leumi Card website, (No double discounts)
Isracard customers 50% discount, Code must be downloaded from the Isracard app/site, (No double discounts)

Please note: Tickets to the Museum are valid for two years from the date of purchase.
For information about special cultural events and purchasing tickets online »
Free audio guide for hearing impaired visitors included with all tickets. Group visits for people with special needs »

Terms and conditions
  • Tickets may be purchased online only at full cost for adults
  • Collection of tickets is conditional upon presentation of the credit card used to purchase the tickets
  • A ticket is valid until the stub is torn from the ticket or until the bar code is scanned at the entrance to the Museum
  • A ticket is valid only for one admission and one reentry on the day of the visit
  • There are no multiple discounts
  • Admission tickets to the Museum do not include admission to events, performances, or workshops to which additional fees are charged
  • Possession of an admission ticket only permits the visitor to enter the Museum campus 
  • Tickets may be collected at the ticket office or at automated ticket vendors, located at the Museum Entrance Pavilion

Dada and Surrealism

Dada, Surrealim and their Legacies in the Israel Museum
The Vera and Arturo Schwarz Collection of Dada and Surrealist Art

About the Collection

Dada and Surrealism rank among the most significant movements of our time. They challenged tradition, introducing materials and visual strategies that would change the vocabulary of art and creating an enduring legacy that has transformed art history. 
The connection between Surrealism and the Israel Museum began as a “chance encounter” more than fifty years ago, and it has since evolved into a deep and lasting relationship. Thanks in great part to generous gifts from donors and artists alike, the Museum has been able to form a spectacular holding of Dada and Surrealist material, comprising everything from paintings, readymades, and photographs to works in the wide variety of new and innovative mediums employed by these groundbreaking movements.

This repository also includes an extensive library and documentary materials that make the collection an important international research resource.

The Museum owes this richness first and foremost to Arturo Schwarz, who in 1972 gifted thirteen replicas of readymades by Marcel Duchamp, followed in 1991 by his gift of the Arturo Schwarz Dada and Surrealist Library, a rare accumulation of documents, periodicals, books, manuscripts, and letters. In 1998, on the occasion of Israel’s 50th anniversary year, he donated his vast collection of Dada, Surrealist, and pre-Surrealist art, comprising more than 700 works. This treasury – The Vera and Arturo Schwarz Collection of Dada and Surrealist Art in the Israel Museum – includes unparalleled holdings of individual artists, among them Duchamp and Man Ray, as well as an ensemble of other artists of remarkable breadth, reflecting a life committed to the Surrealist spirit. Other major gifts and bequests from a great many Museum friends worldwide have also enriched our holdings immeasurably. Harry Torczyner recognized the Museum’s 20th Anniversary in 1985 with his magnificent donation of Magritte’s signature Castle of the Pyrenees, 1959. In the 1980s, a bequest of Marc Engelhard, Paris, brought us Surrealist works acquired directly from practitioners of the movement. And the bequest of the Arthur and Madeleine Chalette Lejwa Collection in 1999 featured important additions of works by Arp, Picasso, and Gonzáles.

View collection online


The Vera and Arturo Schwarz Collection of Dada and Surrealist Art

Highlights from the collection

Simple Search

Search by Subject

Form, Figure and Environment
Artistic Experimentation
Socio-Cultural
Biomorphism
Automatism
Mythology/ Ancient Cultures
Human Figure
Chance
History
Nude
Pictogram
Religion
Metamorphosis
Readymade
Magic and Occult
Hybrid
Assisted Readymade
Gender/ Women/ Desire
Portrait
Assemblage
Word and Image/ Pictopoetry
Vision/ Optics
Objec
Machine and Technology
Landscape/ Dreamscape
Collage
War
Inscape/ Interior
Photocollage
Politics
Still Life
Photomontage
Music
Nature
Rayogram/ Rayograph
Film
Animal
Solarization
Games
 
 
Puns and Humor

Checklists

     Checklist_A-D (pdf)
     Checklist_D-K (pdf)
     Checklist_K-M (pdf)
     Checklist_M-Z and Collective Works (pdf)
     Additional Gifts 2000-2008 (pdf)

The Arturo Schwarz Library

     Books (pdf)
     Periodicals (pdf)
     Documents (pdf)

 


Surrealism and Beyond in the Israel Museum

Introduction

Introduction

Dada and Surrealism are among the most significant movements of our time. They challenged tradition, introducing innovative materials and artistic strategies that would change the vocabulary of art, and created an enduring legacy.

Thanks to generous gifts from donors and artists, the Israel Museum has built an impressive holding of Dada and Surrealist art. The collection comprises paintings, readymades, photographs, and works in the wide variety of mediums these groundbreaking movements employed, as well as an extensive library of documentary materials.

Surrealism and Beyond explores the key preoccupations of these movements: “marvelous” juxtapositions, automatism and its aftermath, biomorphism and metamorphosis, dreamscapes, and desire. Reflecting the conviction that Dada and Surrealism were universal spiritual and ideological movements, the exhibition also integrates later works inspired by these movements' principles.

Spurred by the devastation of World War I, Dada emerged in 1916 in Zurich, and rapidly spread to Berlin, Hannover, Cologne, New York, and Paris. For the Dadaists, the war was final proof of the bankruptcy of late nineteenth-century rationalism and bourgeois culture, and the movement was launched with antiwar performances at the Zurich Cabaret Voltaire. Romanian poet Tristan Tzara asserted in the 1918 Manifesto that the infantile yet suggestive word “Dada” (“hobbyhorse” in French), lifted at random from a French-German dictionary, does not signify anything. Aiming to destroy accepted principles and deconstruct the traditional language of art, the Dadaists adopted radical ideas and modes of artistic expression. Their collages, assemblages, montages, readymades, films, and performances are often considered nihilistic anti-art.

The Surrealist movement, born in Paris after 1919 out of Dada's ferment, was committed to a revolution of spirit and the search for a new reality. Inspired by Sigmund Freud's exploration of the unconscious, Surrealism gave voice to the irrational and creative forces found within the human psyche in its 1924 Manifesto. Its use of chance, automatism, biomorphic shapes, visionary mode, and manipulation of mundane objects characterize the work of artists as distinct as André Breton, Max Ernst, Joan Miró, René Magritte, and Salvador Dalí, among many others.

Decades after the advent of these seminal movements, the creative, critical, and ironic practices of Dada and Surrealism remain open to reinvention and continue to shock and provoke.

        
Automatism and Its Evolution

 Automation
Aiming to rejuvenate poetry and the visual arts by drawing on untapped sources of creativity, Surrealism explored the mind’s hidden realms – dreams, mental illness, and the unconscious. Writers and artists developed “automatic” techniques in order to circumvent conscious control and access the wellspring of the unconscious. Automatism reflects the movement’s fascination with new developments in psychiatric thought in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Surrealists saw automatism as a visual parallel to Sigmund Freud’s use of free association in psychoanalysis.

According to André Breton, the essence of automatism consists of heeding the “voices…of our own unconscious,” while attempting to relinquish conscious control of logic, aesthetics, or morality – enemies of fantasy and creativity. The Surrealists strove to expand their mental worlds and recapture the freedom of imagination normally accessible only in childhood, in dreams, and perhaps in insanity. The role of reason was to be limited to recording and appreciating the magnificent phenomena produced by the unconscious.

Surrealism’s search for processes that would free artworks from conscious thought manifested itself in multiple forms and techniques. These include Jean Arp and André Masson’s “automatic drawings,” Paul Klee and Joan Miró’s semi-automatic works, Max Ernst’s frottages (rubbing) and grattages (scraping), and Oscar Dominguez’s decalcomania (blotting). Man Ray and other photographers developed techniques such as solarization, photograms, and chance effects to create mystery and ambiguity.

In the 1940s, with the wartime exile of major Surrealist artists to the United States, automatism became a major force for New York school artists. Future Abstract Expressionists, including Arshile Gorky, Robert Motherwell, Adolph Gottlieb, and Jackson Pollock, were impressed with the idea that the source of art could be the unconscious, and expanded the repertoire of automatism.


Biomorphism and Metamorphosis

Biomorphism

Biomorphism reflects the tendency to favor ambiguous and organic shapes. Anatomy, plants, bodies of water, and astronomy inspire paintings, reliefs, and sculptures. Jean (Hans) Arp, Henry Moore, Yves Tanguy, and Raoul Ubac – each working in a distinctive style in the realm between figuration and abstraction – developed a language of “biomorphs.”

Arp simplified nature’s forms and reduced them to their abstract essence. His biomorphic works capture and express the vital energy of being, and liberate art from the constrictions imposed by civilization. Yves Tanguy’s paintings fuse animal, vegetable, and human figures with rock formations that hover in vaporous landscapes. During and after World War II, Tanguy’s landscapes became more deserted and war beaten, a convincing psychological portrait of wartime Europe.

Surrealism elevated magic and the transformational process of metamorphosis and hybridization. Picasso’s use of metamorphosis influenced Surrealism in the 1920s, and it appeared both as subject matter and as procedure in the figurative paintings of Leonora Carrington and in the more abstract, automatic works of André Masson.

Metamorphosis attested to the power of the individual imagination to transcend reality and reason in favor of the marvelous. American Indian and Oceanic cultures and their myths provided models of uncensored expression and images of human-plant metamorphosis. Drawing on non-Western cultures, alchemy, and other occult phenomena, Max Ernst felt that the artist must regain a mythic, spiritual harmony with nature lost in Christianity, Western rationalism, and technology.

Victor Brauner and Wilfredo Lam thrived on the occult and the mystical. Brauner’s art reflects a fusion of wide-ranging world cultures, mythologies, and religious beliefs. While focusing primarily on figuration – whether human, animal, or mythological – the works create an intricate lexicon of symbolic forms.


Desire: Muse and Abused

Desire
The exploration of desire offered artists and poets a vast territory in which to probe unconscious fantasies, fears, and inhibitions. The drive to liberate desire through art related to the rise of Communism and Fascism and to the two world wars. Libido became a revolutionary force, and constituted a rebellion against political and social censorship.

By the late 1920s, desire became a principal obsession. Sigmund Freud’s theories of sexuality circulated within the group, and artists and writers viewed themselves as agents of desire. Woman, perceived as a source of creative inspiration, offered promise and power. The passive femme-enfant (woman-child) was valued for her dual nature – naive yet seductive. The Surrealist conception of woman was patriarchal: “What matters is that we be masters of ourselves, the masters of women and of love too” (Manifesto of Surrealism, 1924). This elevation of desire was rooted in the ideas of eighteenth-century French aristocrat Marquis de Sade, who viewed uninhibited passion as a male right.

In paintings, objects, photographs, and collages the female body became a core component, either idealized and mystified or assaulted and fragmented – the passive target of violence. Collage and montage became supreme media through which to dissect, rearrange, or disfigure the female image. Using woman as an object for the projection of unresolved anxieties and conflicts, artists, particularly Hans Bellmer, examined the darker sides of desire.

André Breton viewed the physical reaction to art as indistinguishable from erotic pleasure. This intoxication reverberates in Man Ray’s photographs focusing on the female body. His legacy is evident in the work of Raoul Ubac, Manuel Alvarez Bravo, and Bill Brandt. Marcel Duchamp, with his female alter ego “Rrose Sélavy,” explores the erotic impulse and examines gender boundaries, recreating himself as an object of desire.

Illusion and Dreamscape

Illusion and Dreamscape

The belief in the intoxicating and liberating value of the imagination and the dream was central to Surrealism. Surrealist dreamscapes evoke mystery and challenge our perception of reality. They juxtapose disconnected objects, often within landscapes in which time and space are distorted. As in dreams, memory and place are disconnected and reality becomes fantastic. In the 1924 Manifesto of Surrealism, André Breton described a “resolution of these two states, dream and reality…into a kind of absolute reality, surreality.”

Dream imagery created by Surrealist artists reflects the influence of Sigmund Freud's groundbreaking Interpretation of Dreams (1900), where Freud described dreams as portals to the unconscious. The dream offered artists a territory in which judgment and reason are suspended.

Particularly influential in this context was Giorgio de Chirico, founder of the Italian movement of Metaphysical Painting. Captivated by the dark, elusive, and melancholic, de Chirico created timeless cityscapes that manipulate perspective and emanate an unsettling quality. René Magritte’s poetic inventions are seemingly simple images replete with complex associations. His visual metaphors reflect a mastery of the dramatic and the shocking. Both Magritte and Salvador Dalí exhibited unusual technical virtuosity; this allowed them to create tangible illusions that blur the border between reality and fantasy.

The fusion of images in an illusory space became popular in Surrealist photography as well. Photomontage combines multiple images in a single photograph. Using a medium usually perceived as most “real," Herbert Bayer challenged viewers by defying gravity and space. Bayer and others used eyes as recurring symbols of voyeurism and the power of inner vision. Dreams are perhaps best captured in cinema. Using montage, double exposure, and dissolve, Surrealist films evoke a hallucinatory state and equate the process of filmmaking with dreaming.

 

Marvelous Juxtapositions

Marvelous Juxtapositions

The use of found and readymade materials in Dada and Surrealist collages, montages, and objects break down the borders between art and life. Fragments of the everyday world placed in unexpected juxtapositions shock, seduce, and disorient the viewer. The relocation releases their poetic potential, creating a dream object “drawn from the strange depths of the unconscious mind.”

Dada exploited the rapid technological development of radio, cinema, manufacturing, and the illustrated press. The Dadaist were an international group, and included Kurt Schwitters, Hannah Höch, Max Ernst, Marcel Janco, Man Ray, and Marcel Duchamp, some of whom continued to be active in the Surrealist movement. Their strategies involved purchasing, editing, and arranging objects, texts, and mechanically produced images. Chance, humor, and punning were among their major weapons.

The readymade challenged handmade artifacts and the notion of self-expression. Exhibiting mundane items – a comb, bottlerack, or coat hanger – with almost no intervention, Dada artists questioned the transformation of an object when placed in a museum or gallery. The idea behind the artwork now constituted the real act of creation, anticipating late twentieth-century conceptual art. The Dadaists deliberately minimized the value of the original work of art and the artist’s effort and skill.

Duchamp’s radical operations began before the war and independently of Dada. André Breton described his readymades as precursors of the Surrealist object. These objects were perceived as visual equivalents of the powerful poetic metaphors used in Surrealist core texts: “beautiful as the chance encounter on a dissecting table of a sewing machine and an umbrella.”

Collages and objects inspired later artists, including Louise Nevelson, Joseph Cornell, and Christo, and have become mainstream activities in contemporary art, feeding into installation and site-specific works as well as commercial media.

Virtual Tour

International Symposium

  Dr. Adina Kamien


Website, text, and photos © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, 1995 - 2017
All rights reserved.
Works of art included in this website may be protected by copyright. Copyright in the individual works of art may be held by the artist, or the artist's heirs or agents. These works may not be copied, reproduced, or distributed without the copyright holder's permission.     
For licensing of images and other copyright enquiries, please contact the Image Resources & Copyright Management Department.