Jerusalem, 6- 8 July 2008

Sponsored by the Dorot Foundation and the Nussia and André Aisenstadt Foundation
in collaboration with the The Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and
Associated Literature, The Mandel Institute of Jewish Studies, The Faculty of Humanities
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem




About the Conference


Program

Speakers & Abstracts

International Academic Committee


Organizing Committee

Dorot Foundation

Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls


Contact

Judith Amselem
Dept. of International Relations
Tel. 02-6708861
Fax 02-6708993
ja@imj.org.il

 



Speakers and Abstracts

Dr. Jonathan Ben-Dov, Haifa University
Prof. Moshe Bernstein, Yeshiva University, New York
Prof. George J. Brooke, University of Manchester
Prof. James H. Charlesworth, Princeton Theological Seminary
Prof. John J. Collins, Yale University
Prof. Devorah Dimant, University of Haifa
Dr. Esther Eshel, Bar-Ilan University
Prof. Hanan Eshel, Bar -Ilan University
Prof. Peter Flint, Trinity Western University, Canada
Prof. Richard Freund, University of Hartford
Dr. Avner Glucklich, Israel
Prof. Maxine Grossman, University of Maryland
Prof. Hannah H. Harrington, Patten University, California
Dr. Susan Hazan, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem
Prof. Charlotte Hempel, University of Birmingham of Maryland
Prof. Yaakov Kaduri (James Kugel), Bar Ilan University
Prof. Tal Ilan, Freie Universität, Berlin
Prof. Armin Lange, University of Vienna
Prof. Jodi Magness, North Carolina University
Prof. Florentino Garcia Martinez, K.U. Leuven University, Belgium
Dr. Vered Noam, Tel Aviv University
Prof. Joseph Patrich, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Dr. Stephen J. Pfann, Universityof the Holy Land, Jerusalem
Dr. Eyal Regev, Bar-Ilan University
Dr. Adolfo Roitman, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem
Dr. Serge Ruzer, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Prof. Lawrence H. Schiffman, New York University
Prof. Eileen Schuller, McMaster University, Ontario
Prof. Aharon Shemesh, Bar-Ilan University
Prof. Loren T. Stuckenbruck, Durham University, UK
Prof. Prof. Emanuel Tov, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Prof. Edna Ullmann-Margalit, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Prof. Eugene Ulrich, University of Notre Dame, Indiana
Prof. James VanderKam, Notre Dame University, Indiana
Dr. Cana Werman, Ben Gurion University of the Negev
Dr. Alexey Yuditsky, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev

Dr. Jonathan Ben-Dov, Haifa University
The Elohistic Psalter and the Writing of Divine Names at Qumran
The Qumran scrolls have given us an idea of the variety of scribal practices employed in the writing of Divine names. Many scribes abstained from writing the Tetragrammaton and other Divine names, replacing them in various ways. However, in scrolls where the Divine name is avoided, the avoidance is inconsistent. Other scrolls attest to various forms of correction or augmentation of the Divine name. In recent studies, the data from the entire corpus were collected by Emanuel Tov. The practice in Psalms Scroll 11QPsa was given particular scholarly attention.
Our refined understanding of Divine names in Qumran may be applied to the so-called “Elohistic Psalter” (EP). In the wake of a recent study on the Book of Psalms, the EP has been commonly ascribed to a neo-Elohistic theology rather than being viewed as the outcome of scribal practices. I oppose this view and aim to reinforce the old understanding of the EP as a scribal product. Parallels from Qumran attest not only to the replacement of the Tetragrammaton with Elohim, but also to the use of titles such as Adonay, El, YHWH Adonay, and a series of awkward Divine titles that also appear in the EP. Furthermore, the inconsistent use of Elohim and YHWH within the EP conforms with the similar use of those titles in scrolls from Qumran.

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Prof. Moshe Bernstein, Yeshiva University, New York
Biblical Interpretation in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Looking Back and Looking Ahead
The decade from 1987 to 1997 was one of burgeoning textual publication, as the number of volumes in the official series Discoveries in the Judean Desert grew at a rapid pace. Many of the works first published in DJD during that period were related to the Bible in some way, either “rewritten Bible,” or “parabiblical,” or biblical commentaries. But compared with the decade from 1997–2007, synthetic work on biblical interpretation was rather infrequent. Thus, for example, a search of the Rambi database for the linked subjects “Dead Sea Scrolls” and “biblical interpretation” provides only 20 entries for 1987–1997 and 92 for the decade 1997–2007.
As might be expected in the early stages of digestion of so many new texts, a great deal of the scholarly effort in the publications of the last decade was narrowly focused on the interpretation of those specific texts. There has, however, been a gradual movement toward synthetic treatments dealing either with the nature or methodology of biblical interpretation within groups of texts or literary genres. This tendency has been driven, in part, by the proliferation of guides or handbooks to the Qumran scrolls which now contain “mandatory” chapters on biblical interpretation in the Scrolls.
The course of scholarly history is hard to predict, but there is much more to be done in this latter area, and I envision further rigorous work being done on the exegetical methodology of all the genres of Bible-related texts from Qumran. The legal material, in particular, has not received as much treatment in the past as the non-legal material. I should hope that the area of comparative study of the traditions of interpretation in the Scrolls with those found in later Judaism and Christianity will also take on a greater relative prominence, as the artificial disciplinary barriers which have often divided scholars of the Scrolls from students of rabbinic and patristic texts continue to fall.

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Prof. George J. Brooke, University of Manchester
From Jesus to the Early Christian Communities: Trajectories towards sectarianism in the light of the Dead Sea Scrolls
This paper will explore how several aspects of the teaching and ministry of Jesus reflect ideas and practices to be found in the pre-sectarian and non-sectarian Dead Sea Scrolls, whereas those of several of the New Testament writings have their closest parallels in the sectarian compositions. In light of such parallels, the paper will attempt to show how the Scrolls illuminate the progression that seems to be evident in the New Testament writings from the multiple contexts of Jesus himself to the multiple forms of early Christian community. With a few notable exceptions, the social sciences have only recently begun to be applied to the Scrolls. This paper will therefore pay particular attention to how the social scientific reading of the Scrolls in the last decade has enhanced their understanding, and made them all the more pertinent as a control for how the changes that took place from Jesus to his followers in thought and practice might best be construed. In light of the publication of all the manuscripts and of new methodological approaches, the paper seeks to address familiar topics with fresh insight.

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Prof. James H. Charlesworth, Princeton Theological Seminary
Revelation and Perspicacious Inspiration in Qumran Hermeneutics
At Qumran the interpretation of sacred scripture defined reality, space, time, and God. Past attempts to comprehend this hermeneutic were marred by the following false assumptions: the biblical text was fixed and thus alterations to a “received” text were judged to be emendations, the canon was well-defined or closed, and prophecy had ceased. This lecture will illustrate the problems with such misleading presuppositions. Qumran hermeneutic begins with the choice of text, the lemmata is perceived to be what the prophet should have written, and with the insight that only in the Yachad is it possible to comprehend the meaning of Torah. The hermeneutical key is provided by 1QpHab 7 which clearly states that God allowed only the Righteous Teacher to know all the mysteries of the words of the prophets, and also implies that Habakkuk, and other prophets, were ignorant of all these secrets. Eschatological and revealed knowledge place Qumran within a unique cultural context. The hermeneutic is from within the Yachad, and it assumes the fulfillment of prophecy and faithfulness of the creating Creator
.

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Prof. John J. Collins, Yale University
Enochic Judaism: An Assessment
Over the last decade, considerable energy has been devoted to the study of "Enochic Judaism, " mainly through the efforts of Gabriele Boccaccini. It is argued that the writings preserved in 1 Enoch represent a distinct type of Judaism, in which Enoch rather than Moses is regarded as the primary revealer. It is also argued that this "Enochic Judaism" was the precursor of the movement known from the Dead Sea Scrolls. I propose to examine a) whether these writings do in fact provide evidence for a distinct type of Judaism, and b) whether or to what degree they are relevant to the pre-history of the sect known from the Scrolls.

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Prof. Devorah Dimant, University of Haifa
Between Sectarian and Non-Sectarian Texts: Belial and Mastema
The names Belial and Mastema – both used in reference to the leader of the demonic powers – have been known since the earliest days of Qumran research, inasmuch as a copy of the Rule of the Community (1QS) was recovered from Cave 1 and was one of the first two scrolls to be published. In this scroll, Belial, as leader of the Dark Forces, occupies a central position in the dualistic system which, according to columns III-IV of the Rule, governs the world, in particular the human and angelic spheres. The Rule does not mention the name Mastema, but it does appear in the Book of Jubilees, which was already known in an Ethiopic translation before the discovery of the scrolls. Since the archangel Mastema from Jubilees has a role comparable to that of Belial in the Rule of the Community, and since many of the elements in the Book of Jubilees are identical or very close to those of the Qumran scrolls, it has been surmised that Belial and Mastema are two interchangeable names for one and the same figure. All the early studies of the Qumran scrolls make this assumption, and it is still prevalent today. However, at present, when the full body of Qumran material is available, the picture emerging is more complex. The sectarian literature as a whole favors the name Belial for the Archdemon. However, in one small group of works, Mastema appears as the preferred name for the character. This name is used in the Damascus Covenant and Jubilees, as well as in the Pseudo- Jubilees. In the Apocryphon of Jeremiah we find a similar appellation, the angels of Mastemoth. Moreover, in these four works there are two demonic figures, and Belial actually appears alongside Mastema. In one of the Pseudo-Jubilees, 4Q225, there is a clear relationship between the two, and Belial is represented as subordinate to Mastema. It is therefore of interest that the two figures are mentioned chiefly by the non-sectarian texts that rework the Hebrew Bible. In this context the character of the Damascus Document comes out, once again, as unique within the sectarian literature, in that it reworks many non-Qumranic and non-sectarian traditions.

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Dr. Esther Eshel, Bar-Ilan University
The Genesis Apocryphon: A Chain of Traditions
The Genesis Apocryphon was one of the first seven scrolls to be discovered in
Cave 1 at Qumran, and the final one to be unraveled. Opened in 1956, this scroll was the subject of many studies, but the official edition is yet to be published.
The Genesis Apocryphon is an Aramaic parabiblical work that relates, with additions, omissions, and expansions, to the narratives corresponding to Genesis 5:18–15:5, that is, from the texts that mention Enoch to those dealing with Abram’s vision of the stars. The work is generally attributed to the second or first century BCE, but a date as early as the third century BCE should not be ruled out. The surviving text of the Genesis Apocryphon can be divided into three cycles, divided by blank lines between each cycle: the Enoch cycle, the Noah cycle, and the Abram cycle. Since the beginning and end of the scroll have not been preserved, the text might have originally included additional cycles, which have been lost. From the extant text, we can see a well-written story, with smoothly connected individual components, which employ shared themes and terminology. None of the cycles therefore appear to be independent compositions, taken from written sources that were later inserted into the Genesis Apocryphon. Nevertheless, the possibility that the author of the Genesis Apocryphon used earlier sources cannot be ruled out. This was probably true in the case of the Enoch cycle, where a clear connection with 1 Enoch can be seen.
The existence of significant parallels between the main characters may indicate that the literary technique used by the author of this text should be regarded as a “chain of traditions,” and this will be the focus of my lecture.

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Prof. Hanan Eshel, Bar -Ilan University
Qumran Archeology in Light of Two Rural Sites in Judea
In this lecture I would like to compare Khirbet Qumran to two sites. The first is Hurvat Mazad, on the road between Jaffa and Jerusalem. This site is the only road station that was excavated from the Second Temple period. The second site is Khirbet el-Murak, on the western slopes of the Hebron Hills. Khirbetel-Murak is the only “Villa Rustica” from the Second Temple period discovered thus far in the countryside of Judea. Comparing these two sites to Qumran will demonstrate the uniqueness of the latter site. Since both Qumran and Khirbet el-Murak have a courtyard and a tower surrounded by a glacis, four more sites in Judea with these structures will be discussed.

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Prof. Peter Flint, Trinity Western University, Canada
Types of Variant Readings in the Cave One Isaiah Scrolls (DJD 32)
This paper first gives a brief description of the new Discoveries in the Judean
Desert (DJD) edition of the two Isaiah Scrolls from Cave One (the Great Isaiah Scroll and the Hebrew University Isaiah Scroll). It then gives an overview, with examples, of the types of variant readings found in 1QIsa-a and 1QIsab.
The paper concludes with several compelling variant readings that should, or could, be considered as better or more original versions of the text. These readings should be considered for adoption in future translations of the Book of Isaiah.

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Prof. Richard Freund, University of Hartford
Qumran, the Dead Sea Scrolls, and the Modern Jewish Religious Movements
I shall review how the Dead Sea Scrolls and the use of textual information that became known as part of the Dead Sea Scrolls (including the Geniza from Solomon Schechter’s time) became an intimate part of the educational system and theological background of Conservative Judaism, Reform Judaism, and even Reconstructionist Judaism. Using examples from the Reform and
Conservative Humashim (primarily, G. Plaut and Etz Hayyim) and the journals of the Reform and Conservative movements, as well as communiqués from the rabbis, Teshuvot, and liturgy, this paper will explore how the discoveries at Qumran (which, among other things, brought about major changes in the theories regarding the Essenes) and the translations of the Dead Sea Scroll texts came to be a part of these modern Jewish religious movements. Examples will show how the discoveries affected views on Jewish history, theology, and ethics in the movements’ stances.

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Dr. Avner Glucklich, Israel
An Anthropological Approach to the Research of the Dead Sea Scrolls
My paper addresses two basic problems which, in my opinion, have not been properly dealt with thus far. One is historical in nature and the other is of a literary/psychological nature.
As for the historical issue, I ask why a group of prominent Zadokite priests would leave the Temple for an exile in Qumran, abandoning all that is important to priests, and exchanging it for an ascetic existence in the dire conditions of desert life. The second line of thought I wish to pursue relates mainly to the Hymns of Thanksgiving. I believe that in these hymns we find something that is absolutely unique and alien to the spirit of the Biblical Psalms. I am mainly referring here to the note of extreme personal worthlessness that can be discerned in the hymns; a feeling of self-disgust with the human body that is entirely alien to the Bible; a sense of pollution; and a note of profound pessimism about human nature – this in sharp contrast to the essentially optimistic nature of the Psalms.
I believe that an anthropological and phenomenological approach to the priesthood can greatly assist us in unraveling the mystery of Qumran and the circumstances of the sect’s origin; such an approach will take us into the very essence of priestly existence and demonstrate the inherent sensitivity of priests to all things aesthetic and to the physical aspects of religion, in particular to sports, racing, and competition.
This understanding will help us understand two apparently contradictory phenomena, which nevertheless stem from a similar priestly background:
1. The peculiar fascination that Hellenization held for priests.
2. The negative reaction of conservative Zadokite priests to the above, leading them to quit Hellenized Jerusalem in disgust and opt for the pure life of the desert.

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Prof. Maxine Grossman, University of Maryland
Rethinking Gender in the Community Rule
The insights of sociology and feminist critical scholarship have allowed scholars in the last decade to rethink common assumptions with regard to gender in the Dead Sea Scrolls. Both the basic question of the presence or absence of women in communities associated with the Scrolls, and also more complex questions concerning gendered sectarian identity, are now open to critical discussion and reassessment. An exploration of the treatment of women and men in the Damascus Document and the Rule of the Congregation (1QSa), in light of sociology and contemporary feminist critical thought, provides us with a new model for understanding the concept of gender in the Scrolls. This model can then be applied to a reading of the Community Rule (1QS) in ways that introduce new understandings of the text’s constructions of masculinity, and its notable silence on the subject of women.

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Prof. Hannah H. Harrington, Patten University, California
Ritual Purity Issues in the Dead Sea Scrolls
The study of ritual purity in the texts from Qumran has proven to be central to Dead Sea Scrolls studies. Current issues which require a knowledge of the subject include, for example, the identification of the sect’s origin and persuasion, the relationship between the Scrolls and the Hebrew Bible, the homogeneity or disparity between various Qumran texts and recensions, the correspondence between the site at Qumran (with its 10 miqva’ot) and the sect, and the question of whether the Scrolls influenced Christian baptism.
In addition to a survey of contemporary scholarship on purity in the Scrolls, I offer my own latest research which addresses the connection of purification by water and spirit in the Scrolls. More than any other ancient Jewish texts, greater spirituality is expressed in the Scrolls through increased attention to ritual. Whereas some may regard these two concepts to be antithetical, the Scroll authors consider them complementary. The crux is resolved when one examines the function and purpose of ritual purification. Strong evidence from the Hebrew Bible and other ancient literature (Jewish and non-Jewish) supports the Qumran notion that purification in water anticipates spiritual renewal.

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Dr. Susan Hazan, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem
The Dead Sea Scrolls online: taking on a [Second] Life of their own
The Dead Sea Scrolls represent not only a unique archaeological discovery, but also the religious and cultural message of the Qumran community of the Second Temple period, and the written word of the Bible. The cultural legacy of these rare documents opens up new vistas on ancient Judaism and the origins of first-century Christianity, while at the same time providing a contemporary vehicle for interfaith study and dialogue.
While the physical manuscripts are located and displayed in the Israel Museum, their compelling aesthetic presence, scribal features, and historical message can be readily extended across electronic pathways to reach remote visitors beyond the museum walls. The New Media Unit at the Israel Museum is responsible for interpreting the depth and breadth of collections across the Museum campus, but is particularly excited when it comes to working with the Dead Sea Scrolls, which represent the crown jewels of the Museum collection.
This paper will discuss the different digital platforms that have been inspired by the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Shrine of the Book, from the innovative 3D virtual world of the Shrine Educational Experience (SEE), jointly created by the Museum and the Politecnico di Milano of Italy, to the interfaces developed for the Dorot Foundation Information and Study Center in memory of Joy Gottesman Ungerleider. We will showcase the stunning online scrolling manuscripts, envisioned by George Blumenthal, and describe the latest, recent partnership with IBM. This partnership has served to bring the internationally renowned scrolls into the virtual world, where they now take on a [second] life of their own.

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Prof. Charlotte Hempel, University of Birmingham of Maryland
‘In all their dwelling places’ (1QS 6:2) – Satellites or Precursors of the Yachad?
In this paper I would like to offer some reflections on the recent debates on the nature of the Yachad, conducted in a series of publications by John Collins,
Sarianna Metso, Eyal Regev, myself, and others. I would like to focus in particular on the evidence of small-scale gatherings which appears in legislative discussion in the first half of column 6 of the Community Rule. My own position on this material is that it reflects rather primitive forms of social interaction among Second Temple Jews in activities such as communal prayer, meals, and deliberations. Such an interpretation is highly relevant in the historical evaluation of the Dead Sea Scrolls. If small-scale gatherings of like-minded Jews are attested in parts of the Community Rule that pre-date the highly developed Yachad structure, then such structures may well mirror similar gatherings of other groups of like-minded Jews in Second Temple times.

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Prof. Tal Ilan, Freie Universität, Berlin Freie Universität, Berlin
Scrolls 2Q18, 4Q179, and 11QPs: In Search of Biblical Women in Qumran
Scrolls 2Q18 and 11QPs XXI–XXII are the only fragments discovered in Qumran from the Book of Ben Sira. They are both poems of praise for the wisdom personified in female terms. Scroll 4Q179 is a text which imitates Lamentations 1 and 4, but the female imagery in it is much more pronounced. Are these facts significant? Can they tell us anything about the attitude of the Qumranites to the Ketuvim, and to the female images presented therein? This paper will explore this premise.

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Prof. Israel Knohl, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
The Gabriel Revelation and the Birth of Christianity
The Gabriel Revelation is an apocalyptic text, inscribed in Hebrew on a stone. It was first published by B. Elitzur and A. Yardeni in April 2007. Dated to the earliest days of the Common Era, it was probably uncovered in Jordan.
The Gabriel Revelation is divided into two parts, each focusing on a different subject.
The first part describes an eschatological war: the nations of the world besiege Jerusalem, and the residents are expelled from the city in groups. This description is followed by a passage in which God sends “my servant David” to ask “Ephraim” – the Messiah Son of Joseph – to deliver a “sign.” From the context, it appears that this sign heralds the coming redemption.
The second part of the Gabriel Revelation focuses on death and resurrection – and the blood of the slain. The last paragraph cites the words of the Archangel Gabriel who commands a person to return to life after three days: “By three days, live.”
In my lecture I will deal with the possible connection between the figure of Ephraim, the Messiah Son of Joseph, and the image of Jesus in the New Testament. I will also explore the possible link between the resurrection “by three days” commanded by Gabriel in the Gabriel Revelation and the resurrection of Jesus “on the third day.”

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Prof. Yaakov Kaduri (James Kugel), Bar Ilan University
Which Is Older, Jubilees or the Genesis Apocryphon? Some Exegetical Considerations

The question posed in my title has been the subject of much speculation, most recently in two extended comparisons of the world map as reflected in the two texts. In the present study, I wish to approach the question of priority from a somewhat different angle, a comparison of the exegetical motifs found in parallel sections of Jubilees and the Apocryphon, in the hope that this may shed further light on their relative dating.

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Prof. Armin Lange, University of Vienna
From Paratext to Commentary: Biblical Interpretation in the Qumran Library and the Canonical History of the Hebrew Bible
The Qumran library is rich in interpretative literature. Depending on classification, there are approximately 80 literary compositions from the Qumran library in which Jewish scriptures are rephrased and interpreted. Now that almost all of the Dead Sea Scrolls have been published, it is apparent that we have no definite indications pointing to Essene paratexts (also known as parabiblical texts). This is astonishing, given the great significance of exegetical literature in the Qumran library. In contrast, all the commentaries and almost all the other exegetical texts found in the Qumran library were written by members of the Essene movement.
Why did the Essenes produce commentaries or other exegetical works instead of writing paratexts? The Essene preference for commentary and other forms of exegesis seems to point to a different attitude towards Jewish scriptures.
The Essenes regarded the Jewish scriptures as too holy to be altered in a way that would stray beyond the accepted textual variants of ancient biblical manuscripts. This special regard for the scriptures distinguished the Essenes from other Jewish groups which continued to write paratexts such as the Jeremiah Apocryphon.
Does the Essene reluctance towards rewriting the Jewish scriptures point to a peculiar characteristic of ancient Judaism, or do similar phenomena appear inEgyptian, Mesopotamian, and Greco-Roman culture?

Download handout (Pdf.)

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Prof. Jodi Magness, North Carolina University
The Current State of Qumran Archaeology
Sixty years after their discovery, the Dead Sea Scrolls are now fully published and have been accessible to the public for years. Unfortunately, the material from Roland de Vaux’s excavations at Qumran remains unpublished and inaccessible. During the last decade we have witnessed a spate of alternative archaeological interpretations of the site of Qumran, most prominently those identifying it as a manor house (Yizhar Hirschfeld) or a pottery production center (Yitzhak Magen and Yuval Peleg). In this paper I survey the current state of Qumran archaeology, including a consideration of the alternative interpretations and the larger trends that are defining the ongoing debates.

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Prof. Florentino Garcia Martinez, K.U. Leuven University, Belgium
The Groningen Hypothesis Revisited
Thanks to the completion and publication of the Discoveries in the Judean
Desert (DJD) series, we now have some idea of the extent of the material preserved, and we are no longer dependent on the relatively quick publication of the best-preserved manuscripts from Cave 1. The most interesting result of the publication is the change that has come about in the relative proportions of the categories of manuscripts which form the collection, specifically the relative proportions of biblical, parabiblical, and sectarian manuscripts, and the increased importance of non-sectarian parabiblical material as compared with the other two categories. Without exaggerating, we can now say that the non-sectarian parabiblical material constitutes the majority of the collection, outweighing the biblical and sectarian manuscripts combined.
With this new, broad understanding of the collection in mind, this paper will take a critical look at the basic elements of the “Groningen Hypothesis,” in order to test its validity as an all-encompassing explanation of the Dead Sea Scroll findings.

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Dr. Vered Noam, Tel Aviv University
Qumran and Rabbinic Midrash: Common Exegesis and Implied Polemics
A comparison of Qumran texts with their Tannaitic counterparts reveals traces of ancient halakhic homilies shared by both literatures. Familiarity with this shared literary stratum sheds light on the development of Biblical commentary on the one hand, and the roots of the halakhic heritage on the other. The current lecture illustrates two possible contributions to our knowledge of the history of halakha made by the revelation of basic homiletic material.

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Prof. Joseph Patrich, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
The Pre-Herodian Temple: Reassessing the House of the Laver and the House of the Altar Utensils of the Temple Scroll
As I have shown in an earlier study,1 Cistern no. 5 on the upper platform of the Temple Mount indicates the exact location of the altar, the Temple, the court, and some of the gates and chambers. The Temple Scroll reflects a particular reality of the pre-Herodian temple.
Among the structures mentioned there to the north and south of the Temple proper, are the House of the Laver and the House of the Altar Utensils, both on the southern side. Neither were parts of the Herodian compound. Were they real features of the pre-Herodian temple? A new reading and interpretation of the relevant passages in the Temple Scroll (Col. 31:10–33:13), bearing in mind the location of the Temple relative to Cistern no. 5, and the fact that the distance between the Temple and the altar – 22 cubits (Middot 3:6) – was not to be altered, lead to a positive conclusion. According to the present proposal, the House of the Laver should be shifted 28 cubits west relative to the location proposed by Yadin. The Scroll (Col. 32:12–14) mentions a conduit around the Laver, leading the discarded water into a pit which extended downward into the ground, so that the water flowing into it would be lost in the soil. The western end of Cistern no. 5, which looks like a deep natural geological cleft, can be identified with this vertical pit. Thus, a remnant of the House of the Laver is still extant.
This House was not only an existing structure in the pre-Herodian temple (as was already maintained by Yadin); we can precisely locate it on the present upper platform of Haram al-Sharif. This conclusion permits a better understanding of the architectural evolution of the Second Temple, and the historical circumstances under which the “Temple Source” of the Temple Scroll was composed, and the Scroll was redacted.

1 J. Patrich, "The Second Temple and its Courts: a new proposal about their location on the Temple Mount,” Eretz Israel 28 (2007) [Teddy Kollek Volume], pp. 173–183 [in Hebrew].

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Stephen J. Pfann, Ph.D., and Stephen Pfann, Jr. University of the Holy Land, Jerusalem
The Educational Multimedia Suite and Database on Qumran, the Dead Sea Scrolls, and the History of the Second Temple Period
The Dead Sea Scrolls are without doubt one of the most significant manuscript discoveries of all time. The Scrolls, the people(s) who produced them and their associated sites of Khirbet Qumran, Ein Feshkha, and Jerusalem provide a fascinating locus of research. The study of the Scrolls has accelerated over the year’s hand-in-hand with the development of computer-based applications and the internet. As a result, the dynamic area of Dead Sea Scrolls and Second
Temple period research can now be brought out of the Holy Land and into the international classroom, office, and home.
The Educational Multimedia Suite and Database is a multifaceted application focusing on the Dead Sea Scrolls and on the literature, history, and peoples of Qumran, with the goal of teaching, through interactive technology, individuals of all ages from a wide range of disciplines. A rich set of data is at the base of the Edusuite, including images of artifacts, the sites, and archival material; texts including the Scrolls, the excavation notes of Qumran and Ein Feshkha, and articles on the Second Temple period; a concordance to the Scrolls; the writings of ancient authors including Josephus, Philo, and Pliny; and 3D models of Qumran, Jerusalem in the Second Temple period, tombs from that period, and Masada.
Special features of the suite include a teacher’s “URL class generating tool,” through which readings and assignments can be created for distance learning; interfaces that cater to users ranging in level from beginner to expert; panoramic movies of the site and the caves through which the user can navigate in real time; links and menu bars to relevant data and real-time 3D images of the sites; interaction with characters in the “edutainment” games; and the use of Google Earth to view the world of the Second Temple period via the internet.

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Dr. Eyal Regev, Bar-Ilan University
What Kind of Sect was the Yachad? A Comparative Approach
While few would dispute that the group known as the Yachad, as reflected in the Community Rule, was indeed a sect, previous scholarship has paid little attention to the existence of a variety of sectarian groups, each with its own distinct social characteristics. Scholars who have addressed the phenomenon of sectarianism, notably Albert Baumgarten, have asserted that the Qumran sects were in general introversionist in nature, that is, they separated themselves from the evil world in order to attain salvation. However, even introversionist sects have subtypes. In order to conceptualize the Yachad’s social and religious systems, it is necessary to establish the features peculiar to this specific sect.
In my book, Sectarianism in Qumran: A Cross-Cultural Perspective (Religion and Society Series; Walter de Gruyter, 2007), I examine the Yachad and the Damascus Covenant in light of social-scientific theories of sectarianism, and compare the Yachad to early modern Christian introversionist sects: the early Anabaptists, Mennonites, Hutterites, Amish, Puritans, Quakers, and Shakers.
In the present paper I would like to focus on the characteristics common to the Yachad and these later sects, as well as those which are unique to the Yachad. Like the early Anabaptists, Puritans, Quakers, and Shakers, the Yachad emphasized the need to atone for one’s sins and confess frequently. Common to most of these sects is a resistance to the accumulation of wealth. The Yachad, Hutterites, and Shakers all held their property in common. These attitudes, towards sin and atonement and wealth, mark the material and spiritual boundaries that these sects establish in order to separate themselves from the outside world, which they regard as corrupt.
As a commune, the Yachad had a democratic and partly egalitarian character, quite like the Hutterite communes; a measure of egalitarianism also characterizes the Mennonites and Amish. However, this feature is not self-evident, since the Shakers, who also lived in communes, had a hierarchical structure to their society. Interestingly, the members of the Yachad were also divided according to their spiritual competence, quite like the Shakers. The Yachad commune therefore bears an extraordinary degree of social complexity, combining elements of democracy and egalitarianism with a certain measure of hierarchy.
Unlike the early Anabaptists, Mennonites, Amish, Hutterites, and Puritans, the members of the Yachad had revelations on a regular basis. Such a phenomenon is characteristic only of the Pentecostals, but in certain periods many Quakers and some of the Shakers also had revelations. If the Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifices and the Self-Glorification Hymn are ascribed to the Yachad, one may conclude that Yachad members had a strong tendency towards mystical experience, which is unattested among the other sects – even the Shakers, who were the most spiritual of the groups considered here. It therefore seems that the Yachad was indeed a unique sect. It shared many characteristics common to other well-known introversionist sects, such as stressing atonement and condemning the accumulation of wealth. But it combined democracy and measures of egalitarianism with social hierarchy. Unlike other sects, it had an extremely strong tendency towards heavenly revelation and mysticism.
In short, a comparison of the Yachad to similar sects demonstrates that the Yachad ethos was highly complex. Its members lived in a state of intense religious tension, separating themselves from the outside world, and aspiring to reach a direct relationship with the Divine.

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Dr. Adolfo Roitman, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem
The Quest for New Strategies In Teaching and Popularizing the Dead Sea Scrolls
“The Master shall instruct all the Sons of Light” (1QS III, 12)
Since the discovery of the first of the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1947, scholars have devoted most of their efforts to publishing the Scrolls, excavating Qumran and the surrounding areas, and presenting the new literary and archaeological data. In the past, new information was communicated to the academic and non-academic world alike by means of written and visual materials, oral presentations, media coverage, archaeological tours, and exhibitions. Thanks to the major technological breakthroughs of the last two decades, novel methods have been developed to disseminate knowledge regarding the Scrolls and related topics, such as electronic-digital databases, internet websites, and, most recently, virtual reconstructions. Some scholars have even adopted a less formal approach, using the fictional-literary medium as an indirect channel for transmitting information.
Nevertheless, the irony is that the explosion of information has not necessarily improved the general public’s understanding of the issues. To the contrary, a growing misinformation has blossomed in the last decades, due to two basic factors: the tendency of the popular media to invert reality and decontextualize as well as oversimplify academic arguments, and seek artificially contemporized interpretations of the Scrolls (i.e., mystery, controversy, and spirituality)
(Schiffman [2005], Grossman [2005]); and the vacuum created by the general inability of scholars to communicate the content of the Scrolls and articulate their relevance to the lives of real people (Mahan [2005]). This situation has created a need to develop innovative languages and focal points that can help communicate the true meaning of the Scrolls to the lay public.
In the past, there were just a few sporadic initiatives promoted by the Ministry of Education and Culture, the Israel Museum’s Youth Wing, and the Hebrew University to develop a systematic educational strategy for teaching the Dead Sea Scrolls to the younger generation, and dealing with their content, values, and contemporary relevance. Beyond these efforts, not much was done. Since my appointment as Curator of the Dead Sea Scrolls in November 1994, this issue has become an important part of our agenda. In 1995, a half-day experiential program was created. A joint project of the Shrine of the Book and the Museum’s Youth Wing, it was in use for about four years. A few years later, inspired by an international conference held at the Israel Museum in 1997, and with the endorsement and support of the Dorot Foundation, the Shrine of the Book started developing formal educational programs for teaching the Dead Sea Scrolls. Thus, a fifth matriculation unit in Bible Studies, entitled “The Desert Motif in the Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls” was produced and run as a pilot project for a couple of years in several Jerusalem high schools. In addition, the virtual 3D “Shrine Educational Experience” (SEE), jointly created by the Israel Museum and the Politecnico di Milano of Italy, was developed and implemented as a pilot project by schools in Israel and Italy.
At the same time, in our search for new methods to popularize the Dead Sea Scrolls, a new artistic language was conceived in order to broaden the general community’s understanding of the spiritual and cultural significance of the Scrolls, and to rediscover the human dimension ensconced within the dry parchments and the mute archaeological artifacts and sites. In 2005, for example, a Jewish-Christian seminar was held at the Israel Museum to study the shared roots of the two religions and to enhance mutual understanding and promote interfaith dialogue.
The subject of the Scrolls was also addressed in a number of creative works: in March 2000, a music and dance performance, Between Profane and Sacred, took place at the Shrine of the Book; in 2003, an audio play entitled “A Journey to the Desert” was launched; and in 2006, Ariel Malka’s three-dimensional animated work JavaScriptorium and Ron Assouline’s short film A Human Sanctuary were shown. The latter two works were produced on the occasion of the dedication of the Dorot Foundation Information and Study Center in Memory of Joy Gottesman-Ungerleider.
Now for the first time, an entire session at an international conference is being devoted to the educational approach. This in itself is perhaps the best expression of the dramatic changes that have taken place in the field of Dead Sea Scroll research in the past twenty years. It has been transformed from an esoteric, almost sectarian, scholarly domain into a public and open discourse.

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Dr. Serge Ruzer, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Nascent Christianity between Sectarian and Formative Judaism: Lessons from the Dead Sea Scrolls
Scholars of Qumran have developed methods and insights that make it possible to distinguish between the material in the Scrolls that relates to the exclusive beliefs and practices of the group that supposedly produced the manuscripts, and the content associated with the beliefs and practices shared with "wider Judaism." This invites a critical reassessment of the "witness value" of the traditions formed within the nascent Christian community – another eschatologically inclined Jewish group from the period preceding the destruction of the Temple. While some elements here clearly represent the peculiar outlook of the Jesus movement, others seem to reflect religious patterns of broader circulation. Discussing a few characteristic examples, this paper suggests that the comparative study of the New Testament and the Dead Sea Scrolls (together with other relevant Jewish writings) allows for a better understanding of the interaction between the "sectarian" and "common" Jewish elements in earliest Christianity, on the one hand, and for a fuller picture of what is called Formative Judaism, on the other.

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Prof. Lawrence H. Schiffman, New York University
Laws Concerning Women in the Dead Sea Scrolls
One way of gaining insight into the nature of any Jewish community is the investigation of its views on Jewish law and those Jewish legal texts composed within it. This paper will examine the wide variety of laws pertaining to women in the Dead Sea Scrolls, seeking to extract from them a sense of the nature of the society in which these laws functioned as well as the relationship of these laws to the earlier biblical corpus and the later rabbinic tradition. Among the topics to be discussed are not only those dealing with subjects such as marriage, ritual purity, and oaths and vows; we will also see how women figure in laws pertaining to such subjects as Sabbath, testimony, and even the eschatological community. In our view, it is difficult to conceive of how the Qumran legal system can possibly be understood to serve an all-male celibate society
.

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Prof. Eileen Schuller, McMaster University, Ontario
Women in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Past Research and Future Directions
Over the past fifteen years or so, considerable attention has been paid in the scholarly literature to what can be known about the presence or absence of women in the communities that generated and copied the literature of the Dead Sea Scrolls. This paper will review this discussion with particular attention to how the question(s) has (have) been formulated; where consensus has been achieved; where and why there is still considerable scholarly disagreement; and possible directions for future study.

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Prof. Aharon Shemesh, Bar-Ilan University
Marriage and Marital Life in the Dead Sea Scrolls
Though most scholars believe that the Yachad did not admit women as members, the Dead Sea Scrolls contain many halakhic details concerning women, marriage, and family life. In this lecture I will survey and analyze the relevant passages from the Scrolls in order to portray marriage and marital life within the Scrolls community. Subjects to be dealt with include matchmaking, the wedding ceremony, sex, and divorce.

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Loren T. Stuckenbruck, Durham University, UK
Pre-Maccabean Documents Among the Scrolls: Main themes and legacy among the Qumran Sectarian Scrolls and other literature from the Second Temple period
This paper examines the significance among the Dead Sea material and other Second Temple literature composed in Hebrew and Greek of several Aramaic documents which were arguably in circulation during the 3rd and the first half of the 2nd century BCE. These works, some of which were not studied in detail until the last fifteen years, have been given the following designations: Visions of Amram (4Q543–548), Aramaic Levi Document (1Q21, 4Q213, 4Q213a, 4Q213b, 4Q214, 4Q214a, 4Q214b), Testament of Jacob (4Q537), the various Enochic books (4Q201–202, 204–206, 4Q207–212, XQpapEn), Book of Giants (1Q23–24, 2Q26, 4Q203, 4Q206a, 4Q530–533, 6Q8), Birth of Noah (1Q20 cols i–v, 4Q212; cf. 4Q534–536), Prayer of Nabonidus (4Q242), Pseudo-Daniel (4Q243–245), Daniel (1Q71–72, 4Q112–116, 6Q7), and Genesis Apocryphon (1Q20). While the diversity of these documents resists the confident assignment of composition to authors belonging to any particular group or movement, several recurring themes and motifs (e.g. interest in relationship between patriarchs and foreign kings; antediluvian, post-diluvian, exodus, and exilic times; demonology; instruction; and cosmological and historical apocalyptic ideas) allow us to ascertain something about developments in religious thought during the century leading up to and during the Maccabean revolt, as well as to inquire into why they were brought to the Qumran caves and what influence they exerted there and elsewhere.

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Prof. Emanuel Tov, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Some Thoughts at the Close of theDJD Publication Project
The author offers some reflections on the Dead Sea Scrolls publication enterprise undertaken by the international team. In particular, he ponders the significance of the fact that the Discoveries in the Judaean Desert (DJD) series will soon be completed. He also discusses the use of the Scrolls in the DJD, concordances, and computer programs. Finally, attention is turned to issues that are directly related to the DJDvolumes: reconstruction of lost segments, the percentage and number of scrolls preserved, the sites where scrolls were discovered, the position of fragments in the caves, relationships between the contents of individual caves, and the relationships among multiple copies.

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Prof. Edna Ullmann-Margalit, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Interpretive Circles - The Case of the Dead Sea Scrolls
The central theory dominating Dead Sea Scrolls research ever since its inception, known as the Qumran-Essene hypothesis, asserts that the scrolls belonged to the Essenes, and Qumran was the center of Essene communal life. In my lecture, I discuss how this theory is based on a grand interpretive circle which draws on evidence from three distinct types of sources: the texts of the Scrolls, the archaeological site of Qumran, and the literary writings of three first-century historians, namely Josephus, Philo, and Pliny the Elder. I examine the strength of each of the links in this circle, and raise questions about the strength of the circle as a whole, speculating on the inescapable role of interpretive circles in the human sciences in general.

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Prof. Eugene Ulrich, University of Notre Dame, Indiana
Clearer Insight into the Development of the Bible – A Gift of the Scrolls
The past decade has seen a paradigm shift in our understanding of the development of the texts that eventually became the Bible. Almost sixty years ago, the first biblical scroll discovered – the Great Isaiah Scroll – was judged “vulgar” or “worthless.” During the latter half of the twentieth century, the many “biblical” scrolls were all judged according to the “standards” of the Masoretic, Samaritan, and Septuagintal texts, and the canons represented by those texts.
With the full publication of the Scrolls, the past decade has seen a Copernican shift: a decentralization of the three texts mentioned above, and an appreciation that they were but three fortunately preserved stars in a vast, otherwise lost, galaxy of ancient texts. This paper will attempt to review recent advances. The later categories of “biblical,” “parabiblical,” and “canonical” need to be refocused. There is nothing “sectarian” about the corpus. The development of the successive editions that form the received biblical books can be traced with greater accuracy. There never was an “unreworked Pentateuch,” and so 4Q364-367 will probably eventually be recognized as “4QPentateuch.”

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Prof. James VanderKam, Notre Dame University, Indiana
The History of the Community: An Assessment
In the more than 60 years since the first manuscript discoveries in Qumran Cave 1, there have been numerous attempts to sketch the pre-history and history of the community associated with the Scrolls. Its roots have been traced to various sources and combinations of influences. As for Qumran itself, the thesis of Roland de Vaux, based primarily on his reading of the archaeological evidence, long provided a framework: a small community built quarters at Qumran in the last third or so of the second century BCE and grew in size around 100 BCE or slightly later. Except for an interruption that lasted approximately 30 years, this group continued to occupy the site until 68 CE, when Roman troops attacked and destroyed the buildings and killed the members of the group.
Though the writers of the text do not seem to have shared the modern enthusiasm for their history, this paper will attempt to ascertain what relatively secure evidence is relating to these questions and what this evidence allows us to infer.

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Dr. Cana Werman, Ben Gurion University of the Negev
Priests and Pharisees: Understanding the Dispute
The publication of the Qumran scrolls has revealed new data regarding the development of halakha in priestly circles during the Second Temple period, previously known only from hints and secondary references in rabbinic literature. This talk makes use of the Qumran material to show how Second Temple priests interpreted and modified biblical laws to endow priests with a role as human-divine mediators. I argue that this priestly effort was the root of the priestly dispute with the Pharisees, and I explore the Pharisaic rejection of this priestly mediation as expressed in rabbinic literature.

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Dr. Alexey Yuditsky, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
New Developments in the Research of the Language of the Dead Sea Scrolls
In recent years there has been dramatic progress in the study of the language of the Dead Sea Scrolls, with the majority of the texts having now been published. An increasing number of scholars – both experienced linguists and younger researchers – have become involved in the study of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and a considerable number of doctoral dissertations on the language of the Scrolls are still being written. Qumran scholars have, over the last decade, organized conferences on this topic, and innovative perceptions of the Scrolls have emerged as a result. The aim of this presentation is to survey some of these interesting developments.

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The Israel Museum, Jerusalem
Orion Center
Dorot Foundations







http://www.imj.org.il/DSS_Conference_2008/index.html